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Dittha Budhisagar Padhya’s Assignments January 26, 2008

Filed under: History — rammanohar @ 4:56 am

This document proves, that Military was used in the past to collect tax from madhesi people.

Dittha Budhisagar Padhya’s Assignments

(Abstract translations)

1. On Magh Badi 2, 1921 (January 1865), the following district administrators were ordered to realize the heavy arrears of revenue that had accumulated between 1908 and 1921 vikrama (A.D. 1851 and 1865) and hand over the documents relating to such collection to Dittha Budhisagar Upadhyaya of the Bandobast Kachahari:-

1. Lt. Colonel Bhim Bikram Singh Thapa Chhetri, Parsa

2. Lt. Colonel Maharman Singh Rajbhandari, Sarlahi.

3. Lt. Colonel Himmat Bahadur Shah, Bara.

4. Lt. Colonel Jitman Singh K.C., Saptari

5. Lt. Surya Pratap Shah, Rautahat.

6. Major-Captain Ujir Singh, Mahottari.

7. Subba Rupan Das, Morang.

8. Colonel Shivashankar Padhya, Morang Kathmahal.

9. Lt. Colonel Bakhtwar Singh Khatri, other Kathmahals.

10. Captain Chandrabir Bista Chhetri, Chauriya Goswara Gola.

11. Captain Prabhuram Thapa Chhetri, Opium Monopoly (Mahal).

12. Lt. Chandrashankar Padhya, other Kathmahals.

A copy of this order was forward to Dittha Buddhisagar Upadhyaya, with instructions to realize arrears of land-tax and other revenues in the seven districts of the eastern Tarai region as well as in Chitwan.

2. Prime Minister Jang Bahadur’s order to revenue and other offices in Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Mahotari, Saptari, Morang, and Chitwan, as well as of the Alainchi Kothi in Patna: “We have deputed Dittha Buddhisagar Paddya of the Bandobast Kanchahari to scrutinize records of revenue collections after the Vikrama year 1920 (A.D. 1863). Furnish the appropriate records to him and submit accounts as usual to the Kumarichok.”

The order also provided for the compilation of a schedule of Upariyan Sair duties in consultation with local officials and revenue functions for the purpose of issuing a contract for the collection of such duties.

Maga Badi 3, 1921 (Jaunary 1865)

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 21, PP. 133-35.

3. The following order was sent to Lt. Colonel Meharman Singh Rajbhandari of Sarlahi and Lt. Colonel Surya Pratap Shah of Rautahat on Magh Badi 4, 1921 (Jaunary 1865): “Medini Datta Jha and four other Jimidars have complained that the regulations have been flouted while issuing contracts for the collection of duties on salt and saltpeter (Nimak-Sair), and that they are being compelled to pay up more than what is actually due from them. We have deputed Dittha Buddhisagar Padhya to investigate into these complaints. You are hereby ordered to suspend all collections under the salt and saltpeter contract until these investigations are completed.”

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 21, PP. 131-32.

4. Prime Minister Jang Bahadur’s order to Dittha Buddhisagar Padhya: “The ryots of the seven districts of the eastern Tarai region have come here with complaints that the new tax rates are unduly high. Many ryots are even reported to have migrated to other areas. Your are hereby ordered to investigate the matter. In addition, you are ordered to ascertain the complaints of saltpeter workers (nuniya) and submit a report on how the regulations issued in 1919-20 Vikrama (A.D. 1862-63) have been contravened. Submit reports countersigned by the local district administrators along with recommendations in all these matters.

Magh Badi 4, 1921

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 21, PP. 132-33

 

Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat in A.D. 1810

Filed under: Uncategorized — rammanohar @ 4:41 am
Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat in A.D. 1810

1. Demarcation of the Nepal-India Boundary

Royal Order to Ijaradar Laxman Giri

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 210.

Royal order to Laxman Giri: ”We have received reports that the boundaries have been encroached upon in the Khairsalwar and other moujas from the Moglan (i.e. Indian) side. Check available records in consultation with the local chaudharis, kanugoyes, jaiwars, and other knowledgeable persons, and use force, if necessary, to retain control of territories which belong to us on the basis of such records. Do not relinquish even an inch of territory.

Appointment Subedar Ranajit Bhandari and Mir Munshi Raza Khan

Baisakh Sudi 7, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 184.

Subedar Ranajit Bhandari and Mir Munshi Raza Khan were deputed to demarcate the Nepal-India boundary in the Adapur area of Bara-Parsa district. A unit of the Batukdal Company, stationed in that district, was deputed to assist in the work.

Order to Local Functionaries

Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 165.

Royal order to the subba, fouzdar, chaudharis, kanugoyes, mokaddams, jaiwars, jethraiyats, etc. of Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat: ”We have deputed Ranajit Bhandari and Mir Munshi Raza Khan to settle the dispute relating to the boundary at Adapur. Present yourselves before them whenever summoned without any delay.”

Land Grant to Mir Munshi Raza Khan

(1) Baisakh Sudi 1, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 163.

Mir Munshi Raza Khan was granted 3 khets (i.e. 300 muris) of land in Gokarna, Handigaun, Sunaguthi, and Bhadgaun under manachamal tenure.

(2) Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867,

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 164.

Royal order to subba, fouzdar, peshkar, chaudharis, and kanugoyes, of Bara, Parsa: ”We have granted the moujas of Dhanadi, Dharmapur and Inarwa in the Matioun Parganna of Bara-Parsa district as jagir to Mir Manshi Raza Khan. We have granted him exemption from all unpaid-labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar), with the exception of those meant for the royal palace.”
(Mir Munshi Raza Khan was paid a salary of Rs 1,200 per year, of this amount, Rs 400 was assigned in the form of revenue-yielding lands in Saptari-Mahottari. Raghav Singh Khadka, Ijaradar of Sapatari-Mahottari, was ordered on Baisakh Badi 12, 1867 to make arrangements for that land assignment. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 160).

Emoluments of Ranajit Bhandari

Baisakh Badi 1, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 163-64.

Subba Balabhanjan Pande was ordered to disburse Rs 675 from the revenue collected in Bara and Parsa during the Vikrama year 1867 as the emoluments of Ranajit Bhandari, who had been deputed to settle the boundary dispute in Adapur and compile Jammabandi records in the district for the Vikrama year 1867.

Elephant Granted for Wedding of Mir Munshi Raza Khan’s Nephew

Baisakh Sudi 7, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 184.

Darogas Damodar Jaisi, Mahadev Upadhyaya, Bajavarna Thapa, Dharma Singh Bhandari, and Biradhwaj Khawas of the Hattisar office were ordered to grant an elephant of four cubits for the marriage of Mir Newaji Raza Khan, a nephew of Mir Munshi Raza Khan.

Boundary-Demarcation Regulations

Baisakh Badi 13, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 160-63.

Regulations promulgated in the name of Ranajit Bhandari and Mir Munshi Raza Khan for the settlement of (Nepal-India) boundary disputes.

(Abstract translation).
1. Establish your camp at Adalpur and summon the men deputed by the kanugoye. Tell them that you have been deputed by the Palace to settle the boundary dispute in Adapur.
2. If the kanugoye agrees to accept our claims to Chartla and other areas, as indicated in the course of talks held by the Mahila Guruju in Patna, settle the dispute accordingly in writing in the presence of the fouzdar, chaudharis, kanugoyes, jaiwars, and other knowledgeable people of Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat.
3. If the kanugoye does not accept our claims as mentioned above, ascertain from why such a dispute is being raised on an issue which had already been resolved between the two governments. Try to explain the situation to him.

4. If ( the kanugoye) remains intransigent, send a detailed report to the Mahila Guruju in Calcutta as well as to us.5. If the officials deputed from the other side have already left that place by the time you reach there, do not leave that place. Remain at Adapur and invite the men of the kenugoye.

6. If all mattes are settled with the exception of 50 or 100 bighas of land, do not let the dispute continue.

After the dispute is settled, ascertain the value of property looted from Chhakka Khan and others, make a list of the looters, and obtain a confession from them. If there is no dispute between the two sides on this question, this is good. Otherwise, report the matter to us.
7. If any matter comes up that is not mentioned in the order or regulations, dispose it if you two can agree in a manner that serves our interests. Otherwise, report the matter to us.

Compilation of Land-Tax-Assessement Records

Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 165-67.

Royal order to Subedar Ranajit Bhandari: ”We hereby promulgate the following regulations for the preparation of tax-assessment records (Jammabandi) on Amanat basis for areas situated east of the Bariya river and west of the Adabar river in Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat, which are under the administrative jurisdiction of Makwanpur, with the exception of lands assigned as jagir to the employees of the elephant office (Hattisar).

(Abstract translation).
1. Prepare Jammabandi records on the basis of the assessment-rates for different taxes and levies as fixed in the Vikrama year 1850, and have such record endorsed by chaudharis, kanugoyes, ijaradars, mahaldars, mokddams, etc.

2. Sanction the perquisites of chaudharis, kanugoyes, mokaddams, and Jagirdars at the customary rates. Grant only such remissions as had been sanctioned in the Vikrama year 1850.

3. If it appears that revenue can be increased, but the existing ijaradar is not willing to raise the amount, appoint another capable person as ijaradar in consultation with the subba and the fouzdar. Prepare Jammabandi records accordingly.

4. If former ijaradars had collected taxes and levies from the ryots in excess of the rates prescribed in the Vikrama year 1850, obtain a confession from such ijaradars in the presence of the ryots, and then refund the excess amount so collected, and punish them with a fine of twice that amount.
5. If the local subba or fouzdar has taken brides or gifts and granted as ijara to any person for a lower amount of revenue, realize the shortfall from him, and punish the guilty person with a fine of twice that amount.
6. Do not reduce the amount of tax-assessment in collusion with the subba and the fouzdar. Reconfirm all allotments (Patta) of waste lands. Submit particulars of newly-settled moujas. If any person requests for the allotment of wastes lands, have allotment made through the subba and the fouzdar.
7. Do not accept any brides or gifts. We shall punish you if you take brides and reduce the amount of revenue. Transmit all gifts and presents that may be offered to you, and take what we give.

8. Measure and prepare Jammabandi, records of all confiscated lands in Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Saptari, and Mahottari, other than birta and other grants made under the royal seal. Compile particulars of revenue collected from confiscated lands by Subba Jayafar in the Vikrama year 1866, have such record endorsed by chaudharis and kanugoyes, and forward them to us.
9. Measure all lands that have been assigned in Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, and Mahottari as the emoluments of mechanics employed in munitions factories, grant reasonable remissions to ryots and mokaddams, and prepare Jammabandi records for the balance.
10. Prepare records of new irrigation canals constructed in cultivated moujas. Grant remissions for half of the cost, and prepare Jammabandi records accordingly. Check the expenses sanctioned by the subba for repairing the fort, and peforming religious ceremonies during the Dashain and Fagu festivals, and indicate what expenses are reasonable.

11. Pay salaries as follows to your employees with funds supplied by the subba and the fouzdar:

    1. Rs 125 for a clerk to maintain records.
    2. Rs 20 per month each to two nausindas during the land-assessment operations.
    3. Eleven annas per day each to munsiffs, nausindas, and kathets on the days when lands are measured in each Parganna.
    4. Rs 12 per month each to three peons during the land-measurement operations.

Appointment of Jamadar Keshar Singh Basnyat

Jestha Badi 1, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 191.

Jamadar Keshar Singh Basnyat was given the cultivate (Sanbati) mouja of Archaute in Tokani Parganna of Bara district, on which taxes had been imposed at concessional rates (Kamtalasi) as his jagir from Baisakh Badi 1, 1867. He was entitled to appropriate the proceeds of all taxes and levies collected in that mouja, with the exception of rajanka levies. His duty was to help in the settlement of disputes regarding the (Nepal-India) boundary.
Appointment of Pheku Lal

Jestha Badi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 210-11.

Pheku Lal was granted the waste mouja of Gabhariya in the Matioun Parganna of Bara district as jagir from Baisakh Badi 1,1867. He was granted exemption from the payment of all taxes and levies other than rajanka. His duties were as follows: “Keep records and other evidence ready for use by the subbas whenever there is any dispute about the boundary in the area situated east of the Bariya river and west of the Tista river.”

2. Appointment of Local Functionaries

Appointment of Jhumak Lal Kanugoye

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 211-12.

Jhumak Lal was appointed kanugoye in the Parganna of Garh simraun and the tappa of Rautahat with customary privileges and perquisites. The mouja of Pipli-Bhagawanpur was granted to him as his emoluments. He was directed to maintain revenue records and pay the prescribed amount of salami fee to the Palace every year.

Reinstatement of Chaudharis

(1) Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 211.

Royal order to Modi Rai and Bhinak Rai: ”On Baisakh Badi 1, 1867, we had appointed you as chaudharis in the Parganna of Garh simraun and the tappa of Rautahat. However, the local mokaddams and ryots have complained that they will leave the place if you are appointed as chaudharis there. Inasmuch as you have not been able to defend your case, we hereby dismiss you and reinstate the former chaudharis, Bakhat Rai, Khushilal Rai, and Gauri Rai. If you have made any collections from nanker lands, or other perquisites and revenues, clear the accounts.”
(2) Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 212.

Bakhat Rai, Khusilal Rai, and Gauri Rai were reconfirmed as chaudharis in the Parganna of Garh simraun and the tappa of Rautahat from Baisakh Badi 1, 1867. They were granted two moujas comprising cultivating lands as their nankar. They were also permitted to appropriate the customary perquisites from these two moujas on payment of the prescribed salami fee every year to the Palace through the Amali.

Appointmetn of Bhusan as Kotwal

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 214-15.

Bhusan was appointed Kutwal of Rautahat, Bara, and Parsa with effect from Baisakh Badi 1, 1867. He was responsible for the recovery of stolen property in these districts. His perquisites were as follows:
In cash: One rupee from each mouja of Abal grade every year.

Twelve annas… Doyam grade.

Eight annas….. Sim grade.

Four annas…. Chahar grade.
In Kind: One maund from each mouja of Abal grade.

Thirty seers ….. Doyam grade.

Twenty seers…. Sim grade.

Five seers ….. Chahar grade.
Appointment of Biran Raut as Kotwal

Bhadra Badi 4, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 345-46.

Royal order to Biran Raut: ”You had been functioning as Kotwal of the Pargannas of Sidhmas and Naurangiya in Parsa district. However, these Pargannas were inadvertently placed under the jurisdiction of Bhusan in the Vikrama year 1867. We now reinstate you as Kotwal of these two Pargannas with effect from Baisakh Badi 1. Recover stolen property, including cows, oxen, and buffaloes, to their owners. Obtain your emoluments amounting to Rs 101 every year from the Amil. We also grant the following lands to you as jagir. In the event of disturbances in the border areas, join the Amali along with your own men.

Jagir Lands

10 bighas (including 5 bighas of waste lands) in the mouja of Inarawa in Baluwa, Naurangiya Parganna.

Other Perquisites

In cash: One rupee from each mouja of Abal grade every year.

Twelve annas…. Doyam grade.

Eight annas… Sim grade.

Four annas…. Chahar grade.

In Kind: On maund from each mouja of Abal grade every year.

Thirty seers… Doyam grade.

Twenty seers… Sim grade.

Five seers…. Chahar grade.

One anna from each tangiya (bullock-cart).

Appointment of Mehtar

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 213-14.

Royal order to Saburam Kahar: ”We hereby appoint you as Mahtar of ten Kahar families, in addition of foreign Kahars. We also assign you as jagir sixty bighas of waste lands in mouja of Situhar in the Parganna of Sidhmas in Parsa district. With full assurance, promote cultivation and settlement on these lands, and remain in attendance along with your community. Send you gifts of seasonal produce from time to time.
Jagir lands for ten Kahar families – Fifty bighas.

-do- for Saburam Kahar – Ten bighas.

3. Supply of Saltpeter

Shrawan Badi 10, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 305-7.

Royal order to Kamalu Mehtariay: ”We hereby grant you a seven-year contract (ijara) beginning with the Panchbirahi crops from Baisakh Badi 1 1867 and ending with the Rabi crops on Chaitra Sudi 15, 1873, for the following:
(1) Duties on salt (nimak-sair) and mining of saltpeter (sora-mahal) throughout the whole of Bara and Rautahat districts.

(2) Land tax (mal), customs duties (sair), tax on marriages (bihadani), taxes on communal facilities (sagaudha), fines and penalties (danda-kunda), and Amilan-Dastur (levies due to he revenue-collecting authority), in the following moujas, which have been included in the ijara:

    Hajmaniya, Siswa-Damariya, and Simra in Rautahat district.
    Ambapatre in Basantpur Parganna.

Supply the following quantities of saltpeter every year through the Amil and appropriate income from the revenues of the four moujas mentioned above.

Year Total quantity Government’s Ryots’s share to be

(Vikrama) of saltpeter share purchased by the

government

1867 248 … 20 228

1868 248 … 20 228

1869 248 20 228

1870 248 20 228

1871 248 20 228

1872 248 20 228

1873 248 20 228

1,766 140 1,569

Saltpeter shall be purchased from the ryots, and transported Hitaura, on payment of a total amount of Rs 2012¾ per maund, thus making a total expenditure of Rs 4,463-13.
This expenditure shall be met from the revenue of the moujas mentioned above as follows:

Moujas
Year Hajmaniya Ambarpatte Siswa-Damariya Total

(Vikrama) Rs Rs and Simra Rs

Rs

1867 85 100 442-11 637-13

1868 85 100 442-11 637-13

1869 85 100 442-11 637-13

1870 85 100 442-11 637-13

1971 85 100 442-11 637-13

1972 85 100 442-11 637-13

1973 85 100 442-11 637-13
With due assurance, promote cultivation and settlement in these moujas. Prepare 174 pucca maunds after twice processing 348 kaccha maunds of saltpeter extracted one year previously. Load the saltpeter in bullock-carts escorted by men of the Amil, on payment of one rupee for hiring each bullock, and transport to Hitaura. At Hitaura, have it weighed in the presence of the employees of the Sairdar of that place and of the Amil, seal each consignment, have it stored in the godown, and obtain a receipt. Inform the Dittha in charge of saltpeter in Kathmandu that the specified quantity has been supplied in Hitaura.

4. Problems of Revenue Collection

Cancellation of Revenue Remissions

Bhadra Badi 4, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 342-44.

Royal order to the chaudharis and mokaddams of Bara-Parsa district: ”Chaudharis have signed ijara bonds for each Parganna, and mokaddams have done so for each mouja. Even then, you have obtained remissions for the Vikrama year 1866 on account of drought, expenses incurred in providing irrigation facilities and perfiorming religious ceremonies, and loss of revendue cuased by Guthi and Jagir land grants. No such remissions can be permitted in ijaras. Any profit or loss belongs to you. The account of such remissions was not debited when Subba Jayafar’s account were audited at the Sadar Dafdarkhana.

”Jamadar Ganga Bux of the Rautahat has been deputed along with his troops to recover the amount from you. Liability to refund it belongs to chaudharis and mokaddams, not to the ryots. You shallbe punished if you shift this liability to the ryots. You shall be held guilty if you be recovered from the property of the present subba, fouzdar, chaudharis, kanugoyes, and mokaddams who may create such obstructions.

Particulars
1. Cherwant Parganna, under the jurisdiction of Bhikha Chaudhari.

Rs 18-12 remitted as sikaha(?) from the revenuesof Kumargedhi mouja.

Rs 11-4 remitted on the ground of small-pox (sitala) in the house of Mansa Gurau in Sapahi mouja.
Rs 18-2 remitted as Jagir and Guthi of the priest of the temple of Sri Rajadevi.
Rs 2-5¼ remitted as Guthi of the temple of Prananath on Nankar lands in Kakari mouja.
Rs 2-5 remitted as Amilan levies in Baspur mouja.

Rs 7 remiited in the account of Chaudhari Juthe Sahu of Newa in Basantapur Parganna for sikaha (?).
Rs 22-8 remitted as half (nisaf) of the expenses incurred in constructing irrigation channels in the area under the jurisdiction of Daya Chaudhari in Bariyarpur Parganna.
Rs 31 remitted from revenues due from Chakledar Kesar Singh to Tokani Parganna.
Rs 25 remitted as sikaha (?) of Bhaluwi mouja.

Rs 6 remitted from revenues due from Kashi Krishn of Parasto mouja from an expenditure of Rs 31, of which Rs 25 has been remitted.

Rs 150 due against a total amount of Rs 200 payable as salami in consideration of the appointment of Thagmadhi, Bihari, Nandan, and Naya as Chaudharis in Sidhmas Parganna.
Rs 132-11½ due from Hari Chaudhari in Jagatpur, Naurangiya Parganna. The breakdown is as follows
Rs 16 due ion Parasurampur mouja.

Rs 91-10½ due in Parsauni mouja against a total amount of Rs 116-10½/
Rs 15-5 due in Damarpur mouja.

Rs 10 spent on irrigation facilities in the moujas of Shyampur, Parasurampur, Bhedihar and Tedobhiya.

Rs 189-13 due in Garaf-babuwa under the jurisdiction of Pheru Chaudhari in the same Parganna. The breakdown is as follows:

Rs 79-13 from a total amount of Rs 184 due in the moujas of Pindari and Sikasa.

Rs 110 as salami in addition to the Jammabandi assessment in the mouja of Tulsi-Barwa.

Rs 19-3 remitted in the Parganna of Cherwant, under the jurisdiction of Bhikha Chaudhari, during term of Subba Desharath Khatri in the Vikrama year 1865. The breakdown is as follows:

Rs 2-5 as Guthi for the shrine of Isanath.

Rs as Vasashasti (?) of Surath Pathak.

Rs 1-14 as Amilan levies from the mouja of Baspur

Land Tax-Assessment Rates of Hillsmen

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 213.

Royal order to hillsmen cultivating lands in Bara-Parsa district: ”We hereby reconfirm the following land-holdings and land-assessment rates, which had first been introduced in the (Vikrama) year 1850:
Category of Cultivator Size of Holding Abal 4 bighas.

Doyam 3 bighas.

Sim 2 bighas.

Chahar 1 bigha.

Land-Tax-Assessment Rates

Irrigated land: One rupee per bigha.

Inirrigated land: Eight annas per bigha.

”Cultivatate your lands with full assurance, and pay taxes at the prescribed rates every year through the subba. If you cultivate lands in excess of the figure mentioned above, you must pay taxes at the rates current in the Parganna.”
Land Measurement

Baisakh Badi 9, 1867 (April 1810).

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 151.

Royal order to the jimidars, kanugoyes, mokaddams, ijaradars, and ryots of Bara and Parsa districts: ”Bhikha Chaudhari and other jimidar have come to the Palace with the complaint that ryots are finding it difficult to live because taxes have to be paid on Amanat even though these have not been measured. We shall, therefore, send munsiffs (survey officers) to measure such lands for the crops of the year 1867 Vikrama (A.D. 1867). Cultivate your lands with the assurance. In case anybody has reclaimed virgin lands, these shall not be granted as jagir, birta, or manachamal. If such reclaimed lands are inadvestantly so granted, you shall not be deprived of possession during the term of the allotment (patta). In that even, pay the taxes on such lands to the jagirdar or birtaowner, as the case may be, instead of to the subba or the fouzdar.”
(An order to Subba Balabhanjan Pande of Bara as well as to the local fouzdar and Peskhar, directing them to make arrangements for the measurement of lands in the manner mentioned above, was issued on the same date. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 150).

5. Jagir Grants

Jagir Grant to Gulimani Musahar

Baisakh Badi 9, 1867 (April 1810).

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 158.

Five bighas of lands in Siripur mouja of Basantapur Perganna in Bara district had been granted as jagir to Gulimani Musahar in consideration of the services provided by him in procuring herbs and drugs for the royal palace. The grant was reconfirmed by royal order on Baisakh Badi 9,

Royal Order to Modi Mishra

Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 185-86.

Royal order to Modi Mishra: ”We had granted the mouja of Hathiauli in the tappa of Rautahat to Pheku Lal. We have now received reports that you do not obey the orders of the jagirdar, but do what you like. If you want to stay on in that mouja, pay land tax at the rate of Rs 12½ per bigha. If you cannot pay the tax at this rate, shift your residence to your birta lands, not in the jagir lands of Pheku Lal. The Amil had given you birta land in that mouja; do not press your claim to that land.”

6. Birta, Mokarri, and Other Land Grants

Mokarri Grant to Gasain Prem Giri

Shrawan Badi 10, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 309.

Gosain Prem Giri had reclaimed the mouja of Maidhi in Rautahat. The mouja was granted to him as mokarri from Baisakh Badi 1, 1867. He was authorized to appropriate the proceeds of all taxes and levies collected in that mouja, with the exception of rajanka levies, in consideration of the payment of Rs 125 through the local Amil every year.
Mokarri Grant to Jagannath Bairagi

Jestha Badi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 219-20.

Jagannath Bairagi was granted the mouja of Khairbati in Asibhou Parganna of Bara-Parsa under Mokarri tenure on payment of Rs 201 every year. He was otherwise granted exemption from the payment of all taxes and levies, with to the elephant office (Hattisar).

Mokarri and Other Grants to Mukhiyas

Kartik Badi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 480.

Royal order to Subba Balabhajan Pande: ”We have deputed Mukhiyas Hridaya Singh Das and Harsha Das to audit accounts in Garhwal. Hridaya Singh Das had been granted nankar lands in consideration of his appointment as kanugoye-patwari of the Pargannas of Sidhmas and Cherwant we had reconfirmed the grant at phikdar subject to a salami payment of Rs 185 yearly. Mayaram Das, Kumar Singh Das, and Harsha Das had been granted ijaras for the reclaimation of virgin lands, as well as lands under mokarri tenure. We reconfirm all these grants during the period when these persons are on duty in Garhwa.”

Birta Grant to Santaram

Aswin Badi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 399.

While in Banaras, ex-King Rana Bahadur Shah had granted the mouja of Soharisuhapur in the Naurangiya Parganna of Bara-Parsa as birta to Santaram through a ritual gift. Deva Sharma Ypadhyaya and Bhakta Singh Karki were ordered not to collect any fee from Santaram in consideration of the copper-plate inscription issued to him, but to measure the lands.
Phikdar Grants to Kokil Khawas.

(1) Bhadra Sudi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 381.

Kokil Khawas was granted 1,000 bighas of land in Bhatni, Simra, Baerwa, and Sahathaul in Sidhmas Parganna of Bara-Parsa district unde phikdar tenure. 955 bighas were virgin lands, while 45 bighas had been reclaimed by Kokil Khawas himself. The grant exempted Kokil Khawas from the payment of all taxes and levies, with the exception of Gadimubarak, Godduwa, and Chumawan. The grant was inheritable.

A separate order was sent on the same date to Subba Lalabhanjan Pande, Fouzdar Narsing Basnyat, Peshkars Hula Lal and Khelapati Das, and the local chaudharis, kanugoyes, and jaiwars to demarcate the boundaries of these lands on payment of the customary fees. (Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 380-81).

(2) Jestha Sudi 6, 1967.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 220.

1,000 bighas of waste lands in the mouja of Man-Susahari in Sidhamas Parganna of Parsa district were granted to Kokil Khawas under Phikdar tenure, Subba Balabhanjan Pande of Bara-Parsa, and other local officials and functionaries were ordered to measure the lands and demarcate the boundaries.
(The royal order granting these lands to Kokil Khawas had been issued to Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867. (Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 169).
On Baisakh 5, 1867, the subba and other local authorities were ordered to given possession of the lands to Kokil Khawas. (Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 166).
Kush Birta Bitalab Grant to Radha Ballabh Vaidya

Bhadra Badi 4, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 341-42.

Radha Ballabh Vaidya was granted four moujas in the Parganna of Matioun in Bara district, Jagannathapur, Akarpathar, Dhodiya, and Bhusaha, as Kush Birta Bitalab on a tax-free basis.

Bekh-Baniyad Grant to Bhikha Sahu Chaudhari

Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 185.

In the Vikrama year 1864, the waste mouja of Chataura in the Khesraha Parganna of Bara district had been granted to Bhikha Sahu Chaudhari on Bekh-Buniyad tenure. The grant was reconfirmed on Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867.
Bekh-Buniyad Grant to Hari Chaudhari and Dalpati Chaudhari

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 212-13.

Royal order to Hari Chaudhari and Dalapati Chaudhari: ”In the (Vikrama) year 1855, our father (i.e. King Rana Bahadur Shah), had granted you as Bekh-Buniyad 201 bighas of land in Basantpur mouja of Naurangiya Parganna, which had been lying waste for more than 100 years. The order stated that the lands should not be taken away so long as you remain loyal to us. You have been using these lands until the (Vikrama) year 1866. We hereby reconfirm the grant.”

Gulphul Grant to Ananda Das Bairagi

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 213.

Ananda Das Bairagi Giri was granted ten bighas of waste lands in the mouja of Rampur in the Khesraha Parganna of Bara-Parsa district for use as a garden and orchard under gulphul tenure.

Reconfirmation of Birta Lands of Monastery

Aswin Badi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 398-99.

Royal order to Mahant Nirvan Giri: ”Formerly, the King of Makwanpur had granted two moujas in Bara-Parsa district, Darwa in Sidhmas Parganna and Bankatwa in Naurangiya, as ritual gifts to Mahant Kripal Giri. These lands now belong to your monastery under birta tenure. When Lal Giri, the preceptor of Lal Giri, left the monastery he took away documents with him without permission. On the authority of these documents, he appropriated the produce of these lands. We now reconfirm these lands as the property of that monastery. Our father (i.e. King Rana Bahadur Shah) had also done so. we hereby nullify the claim of Lal Giri and reconfirm these birta lands as the property of your monastery. Take custody of the documents which are in the possession of Lal Giri. Use the ands as birta according to the terms of the original grant, perform the customary religious functions, and wish victory to us.”
Levy on Copper-Plate Inscription

Shrawan Badi 8, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 290.

Royal order to the two Ditthas who had been deputed to collect the levy on copper inscriptions of birta land grants in Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat: ”We had ordered you to disburse funds to Chandrashekhar Upadhyaya and Subedar Dokal for the purchase of goods in Banaras. We have now received reports that you have refused to makde the disbursement on the ground that no such provision has been made in the regulations that have been issued in your name. Collect the levy from birtawner as the rates mentioned in the regulations and disburse the amont mentioned in the royal order. If you make any delay in doing, so thereby disrupting work, you shall be held responsible.”

7. Land Reclamation and Irrigation

Land Grant to Bikha Chaudhari

Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 174.

Bikha Chaudhari was granted authority to settle and reclaim waste lands in the area bounded by Mahekarpokhar in the south, the Churia Valley in the north, the Tarachhi river in the east, and the Bakaiya river in the west. The lands were situated in the Dostiya Parganna of Bara district.
Ijara Grant to Subba Jalim Singh

Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 178-79.

Subba Jalim Singh was given as seven-year contract (ijara) for reclaiming the waste mouja of Sugauli in Sidhmas Parganna of Bara-Parsa district from the Panch-birahi crops of the year beginning Baisakh Badi 1, 1865 to the Rabi crops of the year ending Chaitra Sudi 15, 1871. He was authorized to appropriate the proceeds of all taxes and levies in that mouja, with the exception of rajnaka levies, in consideration of the following every year:

Year Mal Increase Total

Payment Rs Rs

Rs

1865 5 0 5

1866 5 1-4 6-4

1867 6-4 3-2 9-6

1868 9-6 7-0½ 16-6½

1869 16-6½ 16-6½ 32-131870 32-13 1-0½ 33-13½

1871 33-13½ 1-8¼ 35-6¼
The order added: ”With due assurance, promote cultivation and settlement in the mouja. Make the stipulated payment every year to the Amil. Procure settlers from birta lands, as well as from the Moglan (i.e. the Mughal country). If you procure settlers from Mal (i.e. taxable) lands, thereby reducing the revenue, or represent cultivated lands as waste, you shall be punished. Unpaid-labor obligations (Jhara, beth, begar) in the mouja have been remitted. Appropriate whatever amount you can raise in addition to the stipulated payment. If other people have started reclaiming lands in the mouja, do not disturb them. But if they have it waste, make payments as stipulated.”

Operation of Canal

Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867.

Regmi Research Collectio, vol. 39, p. 185.

Royal order to Subba Balabhanjan Pande: ”In the Vikrama year 1850, an irrigation canal had been constructed in the Parganna of Mewa. It was in operation until the Vikrama year 1866. In the Vikrama year 1867, Laxman Giri demolished it. This should not have been done. If the canal irrigates both Birta and Jagir lands, renovate it and distribute the water equitably.”
Ijara Grant to Mahant Ganesh Giri

Jestha Badi 1, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 199-200.

Mahant Ganesh Giri was given a ten-year contrat (ijara) for reclaiming the waste moujas of Pokhariya and Tejapagari in the Garh Simraun Parganna of Rautahat from the Panchbirahi crops of the year beginning Baisakha Badi 1, 1866 to the Rabi crops of the year ending Chaitra Sudi 15, 1875. He was authorized to appropriate the proceeds of all taxes and levies in that mouja, with the exception of rajanka levies, in consideration of the following payments every year:

Year Payment Increase Total

Rs Rs Rs

1866 10 0 10

1867 10 2-8 12-8

1868 12-8 6-4 18-12

1869 18-12 14-1 32-13
1870 32-13 32-13 65-101871 65-10 32-13 98-7

1972 98-7 24-10 123-1

1873 123-1 15-6 138-7

1874 138-7 8-10½ 147-1½

1875 147-1½ 4-9¼ 151-10¼
The order added: ”With due assurance, promote settlement and cultivation in these moujas, and make the stipulated payment every year. Procure settlers from the Moglan (i.e. India), as well as from jagir and birta lands. You shall be punished severely if you procure settlers from raikar lands. Unpaid-labor obligations (beth, begar) have been remitted.”
Ijara Grant to Nandan Chaudhari

Jestha Sudi 6, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 215-16.

Nandan Chaudhari was given a ten-year contract (ijara) for reclaiming the waste mouja of Chhotki-Phulbari in the Sidhmas Parganna of Parsa district from the Panchbirahi crops of the year beginning Baisakh Badi 1, 1867 to the Rabi crops of the year ending Chaitra Sudi 15, 1876. he was authorized to appropriate the proceeds of all taxes and levies in that mouja, with the exception of rajanka levies, in consideration of following payments every year:

Year Mal Payment Increase Total

Rs Rs Rs

1867 5 x 5

1868 5 1-4 6-4

1869 6-4 3-2 9-6

1870 9-6 7-0½ 16-6½

1871 32-13 16-6¼ 32-13

1872 32-13 16-6¼ 49-3½

1873 49-3½ 18-6¼ 67-10¼

1874 67-10¼ 16-14½ 84-8¾

1875 84-8¾ 10-9¼ 95-2

1876 95-2 5-15 101-1
The order added: ”With due assurance, promote settlement and cultivation in these mouja. Make the stipulated payment every year to the Amil. Procure settlers from birta lands, as wellas from the Moglan (i.e. the Mughal country). If you procure settlers from Mal (i.e. taxable) lands, thereby reducing the revenue, or represent cultivated lands as waste, you shall be punished. Unpaid-labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar) in the mouja have been remitted. Appropriate whatever amount you can raise in adition to the stipulated payment. If other people have started reclaiming lands in the mouja, do not disturb them. But if they have left it waste, make payments as stipulated.”
Construction of Canal in Rautahat

Bhadra Badi 4, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 340-41.

Gosain Siddha Puri had previously obtained the mouja of Madhopur in the tappa of Rautahat, located in the Parganna of Garh Simraun, with the administrative headquarters in Makwanpur. The grant was reconfirmed on Bhadra Badi 4, 1867 through a royal order. The order also stated: ”The area depends on rainfall for cultivation you have now offered to construct a dam there for irrigating lands in your own mokarri mouja, as well as in four or five adjoining moujas. We grant you permission to do so. with due assurance, promote settlement and cultivation in that mouja and pay the stipulated amount of tax to the Amil every year.”

8. Goods and Services for the Royal Palace

Disbursements of Ram Narayan

Baisakh Badi 12, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 159-60.

Goods worth Rs 2001 and 3 annas had been bought on credit from Ram Narayan, a merchant, on Chaitra Sudi 6 and 12, 1867. Laxman Giri was ordered to disburse the amount from the ijara revenues collected in Rautahat during the Vikrama years 1866 and 1867.

Purchase of Banat Cloth

Ashadh Sudi 3, 1867.

Regmi Research Collecion, vol. 39, pp. 238-39.

Laxman Giri was ordered to disburse Rs 483-6 from the ijara revenues collected from Rautahat in the Vikrama year 1867 as the cost of banat cloth purchased on credit from traders. The breakdown was as follows:
Rs 115 for 20 yards of banat cloth purchased for Hanumanta Singh from Bhoj Kelwar at the price of Rs 5-12 per yard on Baisakh Sudi 3, 1867.
Rs 124 for 15½ yards purchased from Utin Kelwar at the price of Rs 8 per yard on Jestha Badi 6, 1867.

Rs 244-6 for 42½ yards purchased from Utin Kelwar at the price of Rs 5-12 on Jestha Sudi 15, 1867.

Remittance to Banaras

Ashadh Badi 12, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 233.

Bhakta Singh Karki and Deva Sharma Upadhyaya were ordered to disburse Patna Rs 4,000 to Chandreshekhar Upadhyaya and Subedar Dhokal in Banaras for the purchase of goods from revenue collected from the levy on copper inscriptions of birta land grants in Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat.
Porterage Services

Baisakh Badi 9, 1867 (April 1810).

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 150.

The chaudharis and mokaddams of the Pargannas of Cherwant, Basantapur, Bariyarpur, Khesraha, Tokani, and Totani (in Bara district) were ordered to recruit unpaid porterage services (begar) for the transportation of supplies procured for the Palace from Patna and Calcutta upto Hitaura.

9. Disbursement of Salaris

Salary of Kaji Ranadhwaj Thapa

Baisakh Badi 9, 1867 (April 1810).

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 147.

Laxman Giri, Ijaradar of Rautahat district, was ordered to pay Rs 303 as arrears of salary due to Kaji Ranadhwaj Thapa from the ijara revenues of the year 1867 Vikrama (A.D. 1810).

Salaries of Hattisar Officials

Aswin Sudi 2, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 421.

Balabhanjan Pande was ordered to pay Rs 3,754 and 11 annas to the officials of Hattisar (Elephant Office) from the revenue collected in Bara and Parsa duringthe Vikrama year 1867,

The End

 

Madheshi Murmurings January 7, 2008

Filed under: Uncategorized — rammanohar @ 6:00 pm

Here is an article, which I wrote on 16-17th Jan 2007. It was just the beginning of madhesi andolan at that time. After that movement, time doesn’t remain same. It has changed every political calculation. This article was published on 19th Jan 2007,in nepalnews ( an online portal).

(more…)

 

Saptari and Mahottari Affairs, 1810-11 AD January 6, 2008

Filed under: History — rammanohar @ 1:50 pm

Saptari and Mahottari Affairs, A.D. 1810-11

During 1810-11, the government was confronted with serious administrative problems in Saptari and Mahottari districts of the eastern Tarai region. These two districts comprised a single administrative unit at that time.

On Marga Badi 9, 1866 (November 1809), Subba Achal Thapa had been appointed chief of the state-operated Bhangaruwa market in Saptari, (Regmi Research Collection, vol. 40, p. 136). His functions and duties were as follows. (Abstract translations of relevant sections):

1. Procure merchants from India and have them settle at Bhangaruwa.

2. Encourage traders and merchants from the hills and the Tarai to buy and sell commodities at Bhangaruwa at current prices. Do not use force while doing so.

3. Use revenue (from specified sources) to buy commodities at the end of three years, indicating the profit made through the buying and selling of commodities and obtain clearance.

 

4. Collect taxes and other dues from the inhabants of the villages assigned to the Bhangaruwa market at the customary rates. Do not increase the rates and oppress the subjects.

5. While supplying commodities required by the palace from time to time, send a note indicating the actual cost. Do not seek to make any profit on such supplies.

6-7. Reseanable expenses incurred in purchasing commodities from different areas, or in supplying commodities to the palace, as well as in paper, mattresses, lamps, etc. for the establishment, shall be debited.

11. No duties (sair) shall be collected on commodities purchased inside the Kingdom; expenses incurred in packing and transporting commodities on lands and villages not assigned to the market.

14. Administer justice in the market and the lands and villages assigned to it, collect fines, penalties, and escheats, and credit the proceeds to the accounts.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 40, pp. 141-45.

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Subba Achal Thapa was warned not to interfere in the collection of revenue from raikar lands in Saptari and Mahottari. The warning added, ”In case revenue delines as a result of your oppressive actions, the loss may be realized from yu, and you may also be punished with fines.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 11.

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Royal order to Subba Achal Thapa:

”A letter sent by Ganga Prasad Giri to Raghav Singh has been referred to us. according to that letter, the ryots of Saptari are fleeting to India, and the country is being ruined, because you have been collecting the following unauthorized levies and payments:

(a) A tax of three rupees from the owner of a draft ox.

(b) Ghee worth five ruees for each buffalo from dairy-farmers.

(c) One maund of oil for each oil-press from oil-men.

(d) Five rupees from each vendor operating with a capital of ten rupees.

 

(e) A levy of 1½ annas on each ryot.

(f) Forced and unpaid labor (begar) on raikar lands.

”We have granted no authority to you to make such collections. Nor have we authorized you to prevent the local inhabitants from procuring goods from India. One the contrary, we had granted you authority only to collect a levy of one anna in each rupee worth goods purchased by Indians beyond a radius of five or six kos from the Bhangaruwa market, and to act according to the regulations in other matters.

”But now it seems that you have collected payments in contravention of the regulations and thus ruined the country, refund all such unauthorized collections, and marke purchase on behalf of this market at current prices.”

The royal order then gave the following instructions to Subba Achal Thapa:

(1) Let those who visit the market for buying and selling goods do so at current prices.

(2) Let ryots who procure salt, gur, etc. from India at their own cost do so.

(3) Supply goods to traders at reasonable prices for purposes of trade.

(4) Do not collect any tax on commodities bought by the local inhabitants for personal consumption. Collect such tax only from those who buy commodities for purposes of trade.

(5) Bring back all the ryots who have fled from your oppression.

(6) The Subba shall dispose of complaints submitted at his Kachahari by any merchant. Do not take over such complaints yourself.

(7) Do not visit the villages to dispose of disputes among merchants. Do so only of complaints are submitted to you. The Subba shall not encroach upon your jurisdiction in this regard.”

The royal order concluded: ”Both the market and the country belong to us. Function in consultation with the Subba in such a manner that revenue is collected and the market too is operated. Do not impress forced and unpaid laborfrom the inhabitants of mal lands. Employ only the market. You shall be held responsible if your oppressive measures ruin the country.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 13-14.

 

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Royal order to the Subedars, Jamadars, Huddas, and soldiers of the Bhagawati-Dal and Sri-Dal Companies:

”We have appointed Subba Achal Thapa to discharge functions relating to the market of Bhangaruwa in Saptari-Mahottari. We not appoint Subba Jayafar to discharge functions relating to raikarmal lands. Both of them belong to us. in case any dispute arises between them in the course of the discharge of their functions, do not quarrel with the employees of Subba Jayafar or with the ryots of raikarmal lands on the plea that you are under the command of Subba Achal Thapa.”

The royal order added: ”We have exempted the inhabitants of raikar lands from forced and unpaid labor obligations. As such, do not create any trouble on such lands. In case the ryots flee because of your actions, so that the country is ruined, and complaints are accordingly submitted to us, and in case you quarrel with Subba Jayafar and his employees, you shall be severely punished. In case any dispute arises between the two Subbas, report the matter to us, and we shall dispense justice after hearing both sides.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 14-15).

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Royal order to Subba Jayafar and Subba Achal Thapa:

We exempt the ryots of raikar-mal lands in Saptari from forced and unpaid labor obligations. Impress such labor from the inhabitants of birta and jagir lands to transport goods bought for the (Bhangaruwa) market, and those procured for the palace. Any one who impresses forced and unpaid labor from ryots on raikar-mal lands will be punished.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 16.

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Royal order to the Chaudharis, Kanugoyes, Mokadams, Jethraiyats, ryots, sairdars, mahaldars, Ijaradars, and others of Saptari and Mahottari:

”We have received reports that because unauthorized levies and payments (as described above) have been collected from you in the name of the (Bhangaruwa) market, and forced and unpaid labor has been impressed from the inhabitants of raikar-mal lands, you have gone over to India.

”We have sent orders to Achal Thapa forbidding him to collect such unauthorized levies and payments. Come back and reoocupy your lands with full assurance. In case you suffer from any oppression in the future, represent the matter to us through Subba Jayafar Adhikari, and we shall take appropriate dicisions. Have no doubts on any account.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 17.

 

 

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Royal order to ryots inhabiting raikar lands in Saptari and Mahottari:

”Any person who vacates his raikar holding and shifts to birta, jagir or other lands shall be under obligation to pay taxes due on the raikar holding vacated by him. we hereby reconfirm the remission of taxes on 2 kathhas for each bigha of cultivated lands as stipulated in the 1850 Vikrama (A.D. 1793) settlement, in addition to ther remissions as stipulated therein.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 18.

Chaitra Badi 9, 1867

Jayafar was assigned as ijara for the collection of revenue in Saptari and Mahottari for a three year period from Baisakh Badi 1, 1868. He succeeded Raghava Simha.

The ijara entitled Jayafar to appropriate revenues from all available sources in these two districts, with the exception of the following sources:

(1) Emoluments and perquisities of Chaudharis and Kanugoyes.

(2) Chanda-Chiraki tax (collected on Brahman priests from India).

(3) Salami levy from the heads (Mahanta) of monasteries.

(4) Fines, fees, and penalties collected on cases referred to the palace.

(5) Fines and penalties collected on Pachakhat cases.

(6) Treasure-troves.

(7) Levies collected on behalf of the Crown (Raja-Anka).

The ijaradar was also allowed one-sixth of income accruing from escheat property. He was required to supply rhinoceros horn, baby rhinoceros, and bison (gaurigai) horn to the palace. In addition, he was required to meet all expenses on the local administrative and military establishments.

Net payments stipulated by the ijaradars to the government every year were as follows:

Vikram Year Amount

1868 Rs 62,001

1869 Rs 62,501

1870 Rs 63,101

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 31-33.

Chaitra Badi 9, 1867

Royal order to the Chaudharis, Kanugoyes, Mahaldars, Mokadams, Jethraiyats, and ryots of Saptari and Mahottari:

”The districts of Saptari and Mahottari, so far administered by Raghava Simha Khadkha, have now been placed under the authority of Subba Jayafar. All your allotments, rights and privileges, etc. have been reconfirmed. With due assurance, work together with the Subba and make the country populous and prosperous. Persuade all Chaudharis, Mokadams, and ryots who have left the districts to come back and reoccupy their lands, and pay your taxes through the Subba. Represent your grievances, if any, through him, and we shall redress them.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 33.

Jestha Sudi 5, 1867

Disputes on the question of jurisdiction had arisen between Subba Achal Thapa and Subba Jayafar Adhikari’s predecessor, Raghava Simha Khadka, also. On Jestha Sudi 5, 1867, the following royal order was issued in the name of Subba Achal Thapa:

”Raghava Simha Khadka’s men have complained that revenue from sair duties has declined as a result of the monopoly (ekahatti) granted in the sale and purchase of commodities in the district of Saptari. You are, therefore, ordered to function in such a manner that Raghava Simha Khadka does not incur any loss, and the business of (Bhangaruwa) market too is not obstructed.

”Revenue from the Bhusahat levy has been included in your assignment. Issue a receipt allowing remission for the amount collected from this source to Raghava Simha Khadka.”

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 207-8.

 

The Fakir Dacoits of Vijayapur

Filed under: History — rammanohar @ 1:48 pm

The Fakir Dacoits of Vijayapur

Royal order to Fakirs in the terrotriy of Vijayapur:

 

”We have received reports that you organize bands among yourselves and commit dacoity in the territories of the English, claiming that you have been granted the right to do so by the former Amali. You cannot reside in our territories and commot dacoity in the teeritories of the English. You shall be hold responsible if a quarrel arises with the English as a result. Do not engage in such actions.”

 

Shrawan Badi 5, 1854

RRC, Vol. 25, p. 548.

 

Dinanath Upadhyaya

Filed under: Uncategorized — rammanohar @ 1:47 pm

Dinanath Upadhyaya was the person whom history can’t forget. He has made many ups and down.

———————–

Dinanath Upadhyaya

Dinanath Upadhyaya was an emoloyee of Kahar Simha Basnyat when the latter was appointed Chief administrator of Makwanpur after it was conquerd by the Gorkhalis in 1762. His father, Satydhar Upadhyaya Dahal, had been an employee of the former King of Makwanpur, Hemakarna Sen. The family belonged to Jhangadholi (Sindhuli), which had formed a part of the principality of Makwanpur.

Baburam Acharya, Nepalko Sankshipta Vrittanta, p. 58.

On Bhadra Sudi 12, 1847, Dinanath Upadhyaya and Purnananda Upadhyaya were granted 60 ropanis of rice-fields and homesites in the Bhorletar area of Changu in Kathmandu.

RRC, Vol. 19, p. 477.

In Bhadra 1847, Dinanath Upadhyaya and Purnananda Upadhyaya jointly held an Ijara for revenue collection in Vijayapur (Morang).

RRC, Vol. 19, p. 464.

A company commanded by Captain Jahar Simha was sent to Vijayapur. Since it was on a temporary assignment there, the Ijaradars were orderd to pay its salaries on a monthly basis.

RRC, Vol., 19, p. 466.

Each man of this company was allotted 5 ropanis for use as a homestead in Kathmandu Valley.RRC, Vol. 19, p. 465.

Payments charged on the Ijara revenues of Vijayapur included the following:-

(1) 420 rupees in lieu of 16.8 khets which had been assigned as Jagir to the Purano-Gorakh Company but had later been granted as in lieu of 29.75 khets.

(2) 743 rupees and 8 annas similarly due to the Naya Srinath Company in lieu of 29.75 khets.

(3) 2325 rupees a year to Kaji Jagajit Pande was the shortfall in this cash emoluments, as long as the remained Kaji.

RRC, Vol. 19, pp. 464-68.

In Bhadra 1847, a delegation from Morang district, led by Chaudhari Dayaram, visited Kathmandu with the complaint that the (former), Ijaradars of Vijayapur (Morang), Subba Zorawar Khawas and Subba Indra Simha Khawas, had collected payments in excess of the amount prescribed in the royal order. A sum of 8,000 rupees was accordingly waived.

RRC, Vol. 19, p. 468.

Dinanath Upadhyaya was later appointed Chaudhari of the Simraungarh Parganna of Rautahat. On Aswin Sudi 13, 1851, however, he was removed that post, and the former Chaudharis, namely, Bakhat Chaudhari, Fakira Chaudhari, and Dukhari Chaudhari, were reinstated.

RRC, Vol. 24, pp. 402-3.

Dinanath Upadhyaya and Vrajavilas Upadhyaya had also been appointed as Joint Ijaradar Subbas of Vijayapur (Morang). They were replaced by Subba Zorawar Khawas on Marga Sudi 12, 1851.

RRC, Vol. 24, pp. 508-12.

In the Vikrama year 1853 (A.D. 1796), the mouja of Bhaluwahi in Rautahat was granted to Dinanath Upadhyaya on (inheritale) bekh-bunyad tenure. In the Vikrama yuear 1872 (A.D. 1815), during the Nepal-British war, Dinanath Upadhyaya had the grant endorsed on the reverse side of the document by the British authorities. Because the document was not submitted to the royal palace in

Kathmandu, the mouja was confiscated. In the Vikrama year 1894 (A.D. 1837), Mahidhar Upadhyaya, apparently descendant of Dinanath Upadhyaya, produced the original document (endorsed by the Britrish authorities). The grant was accordingly restored. Sardar Balabhanjan Pande, Chief Administration of Rautahat, was informed of the restoration on Kartik Sudi 7, 1894 (October 1837).

RRC, Vol. 26, p. 704.

 

Supply of Elephants, A.D. 1796

Filed under: History — rammanohar @ 1:35 pm

Supply of Elephants, A.D. 1796

Daroga Dayaram Padhya, Damodar Jais, Ranamardan Khawas, Jasya Khawas, Mahadev Padhya, and Bandhu Khawas were ordered to hand over two bull elephants and two cow elephants to Dinanath Padhya. The animals were meant for gifts to British officials in Calcutta.

Aswin Sudi 14, 1853

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 23, p. 57.

Royal order to Amalidars, Sabha, Umras, birtaowners, Chaukidars, Jagat-collectors, etc. in the region west of … and east of Pyuthan: ”Elephants are being brough here from Pyuthan. You are hereby ordered to provide them with fodder, water, and foodgrains in the area under your jurisdiction. Let there be no complaint in this regard.”

Aswin Sudi 14, 1853

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 23, p. 57.

 

III

Royal order to Subba Ranjit kanwar of …

”We need one large tusked elephant and one old…. For our tours and hunting expeditions. Mahouts are being sent here through Darogas. Depute four men from there to escort the animals on the way and arrange for fodder and water.”

Aswin Sudi 14, 1853

Regmi Research Collection, Vol. 23, p. 57.